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General Understanding
Green chemistry is the merging of environmentally friendly techniques with commercially viable industrial processes.  These techniques range from photochemistry to solid state chemistry for reduced energy requirements, decreased byproduct formation, decreased waste formation and increased product yield.  One technique which has been found to be a novel green technology is the incorporation of microwave irradiation into organic syntheses in solvent-less condition thereby reducing waste. Many synthetic processes have been found to work in the microwave however some important functionalities microwave techniques are still lacking.  One important moiety is the cyclic imide which is current used in many novel medicinal, polymeric, photonic, electronic, senor technologies and antibacterial products.  This work applied novel microwave-assisted syntheses of cyclic imides and its derivatives as an environmentally friendly (green chemistry) solvent-less process.  Microwave conditions were determined for an array of biologically active cyclic imides and its derivatives using both a mono-mode (industrial) and multimode (conventional) microwave yielding similar to superior results as compared to conventional syntheses.
 
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:  Improved Microwave Synthesis of Bioactive Molecules.
 

This work established an efficient Diels-Alder microwave technique for creation of bicyclic anhydrides in 63 – 92% yield used as starting reagents for the synthesis of cyclic imides (CEM, 150C, 5 minutes).  The reaction of generic anhydrides with DMAP and NH4Cl was able to synthesize the unsubsutited imide in 69 – 91% yield (CEM, 150C, 10 minutes).   Unsubstituted cyclic imides were synthesized using generic anhydrides with NH4OAc in 50-98% yield (Biotage, 150C, 5 minutes). The reaction of generic anhydrides with DMAP and hydroxylamine (HCl) was able to synthesize the unsubsutited imide in 42-97% yield (CEM Discover microwave, 150C, 10 minutes).  A new microwave technique for the synthesis of N-methoxy cyclic imides was established using generic anhydrides and methoxyamine (HCl) in 40 – 98% yield (CEM, 125C, 5 minutes). Thalidomide and its derivatives were synthesized using generic anhydrides, glutamic acid, DMAP and NH4Cl in 32 – 52% yield.  A novel microwave synthesis of enaminones using cyclic diene and NH4OAc in 71 – 92% yield (CEM, 150C, 5 minutes).  The novel microwave synthesis of enoneimides was found in 70-80% yield using generic anhydrides and enaminones.